Hunter states that "it's much easier to be a cultist now, but it is also rather more inconsequential. Cult followings themselves can range from adoration to contempt, and they have little in common except for their celebration of nonconformity – even the bad films ridiculed by fans are artistically nonconformist, albeit unintentionally. February 2020 This critical backlash may serve to embellish the filmmakers' reception as cult auteurs. [18] Academic Xavier Mendik also defines cult films as opposing the mainstream and further proposes that films can become cult by virtue of their genre or content, especially if it is transgressive. [15] By virtue of the time travel plot, Back to the Future permits nostalgia for both the 1950s and 1980s. [6] This acceptance is not universal, though, and some critics have resisted this mainstreaming of paracinema. [4] Some definitions exclude films that have been released by major studios or have big budgets,[5] that try specifically to become cult films,[6] or become accepted by mainstream audiences and critics. Earnest fans, who recognize and accept the film's faults, can make minor celebrities of the film's cast,[113] though the benefits are not always clear. Ryan Gosling [145] Heavy Metal (1981) faced similar denunciations from critics. The rise of the Internet and on-demand films has led critics to question whether "so bad it's good" films have a future now that people have such diverse options in both availability and catalog,[110] though fans eager to experience the worst films ever made can lead to lucrative showings for local theaters[111] and merchandisers. ... it was this same absurdity that caused the movie to become a cult classic. Director [45], Despite their oppositional nature, cult films can produce celebrities. [32] Discussing his reputation for making cult films, Bollywood director Anurag Kashyap said, "I didn't set out to make cult films. [42], Mathijs states that cult films and fandom frequently involve nontraditional elements of time and time management. Inclusive definitions allow for major studio productions, especially box office bombs, while exclusive definitions focus more on obscure, transgressive films shunned by the mainstream. If one were to live in a world filled with nothing but education, the education would mean nothing in the end. The Place Beyond The Pines Personal responsibility is often highlighted, and a strong anti-censorship message may be present. "[131] "Sick films", the most disturbing and graphically transgressive films, have their own distinct cult following; these films transcend their roots in exploitation, horror, and art films. [13]:42–43, Releases from major studios – such as The Big Lebowski (1998), which was distributed by Universal Studios – can become cult films when they fail at the box office and develop a cult following through reissues, such as midnight movies, festivals, and home video. [39], The transgressive nature of cult films can lead to their censorship. [34], In a global context, popularity can vary widely by territory, especially with regard to limited releases. Comment. #56 Cult Classic Movie The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976) R. Thomas Jerome Newton is a humanoid alien who comes to Earth to get water for his dying planet. quote academic Jeffrey Sconce, who defines cult films in terms of paracinema, marginal films that exist outside critical and cultural acceptance: everything from exploitation to beach party musicals to softcore pornography. E.T. [15] David Lynch himself has not ruled out another television series, as studios have become reluctant to take chances on non-mainstream ideas. The most exploitative aspects of art films are thus played up and their academic recognition ignored. Italy Video [4] Over time, the definition has become more vague and inclusive as it drifts away from earlier, stricter views. [5][168] Tarantino later used his fame to champion obscure cult films that had influenced him and set up the short-lived Rolling Thunder Pictures, which distributed several of his favorite cult films. [78], Academics have written of how transgressive themes in cult films can be regressive. "[149] The sponsored film Mr. B Natural became a cult hit when it was broadcast on the satirical television show Mystery Science Theater 3000;[150] cast member Trace Beaulieu cited these educational shorts as his favorite to mock on the show. Girls Obsessive trivia can be used to bore mainstream audiences while building up subcultural capital. Even within subcultures, fans who break subcultural scripts, such as denying the affectivity of a disturbing film, will be ridiculed for their lack of authenticity. [132] In 1960s and 1970s America, exploitation and art films shared audiences and marketing, especially in New York City's grindhouse cinemas. [61]:130–132 Previously lost scenes cut by studios can be re-added and restore a director's original vision, which draws similar fanfare and acclaim from fans. [181] Influenced by the successful online hype of The Blair Witch Project (1999), other films have attempted to draw online cult fandom with the use of prefabricated cult appeal. [182] Although it was proclaimed a cult film and major game-changer before it was released,[183] it failed to win either mainstream audiences or maintain its cult following. Donald Liebenson of the Los Angeles Times cites the violence and sexual imagery as alienating critics, who did not know what to make of the film. spoiler free cult movie news from the movie sleuth. Before VHS and DVD art film houses would frequently show these films year after year. Demographics shifted, and more hip and mainstream audiences were drawn to them. [12] According to feminist scholar Joanne Hollows, this subjectivity causes films with large female cult followings to be perceived as too mainstream and not transgressive enough to qualify as a cult film. [18] Besides creating new communities, cult films can link formerly disparate groups, such as fans and critics. Hunter identifies a prefabricated cult film style which includes "deliberately, insulting bad films", "slick exercises in dysfunction and alienation", and mainstream films "that sell themselves as worth obsessing over". Leonard Kastle, who directed The Honeymoon Killers (1969), never directed another film again. [12] These inherent dichotomies can lead audiences to be split between ironic and earnest fans. [153] Addressing concerns that DVDs have revoked the cult status of films like Rocky Horror, academic Mikel J. Koven states that small scale screenings with friends and family can replace midnight showings. October 2016 Filters A work ... With weekly viewings in movie theaters running continuously for over thirty years, The Rocky Horror Picture Show is a major cult classic despite having since become known to the general public. [12] Midnight movies became more popular and mainstream, peaking with the release of The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975), which finally found its audience several years after its release. Hollywood films, due to their nature, are more likely to attract this kind of attention, which leads to a mainstreaming effect of cult culture. Topicality, which can be regional (such as objection to government funding of the film) or critical (such as philosophical objections to the themes), enables attention and a contextual response. All [86] Authenticity may also drive fans to deny genre categorization to films perceived as too mainstream or accessible. ISBN: 0792848276. 9 Cult Classic Halloween Movies You Need To Watch. [143] Ralph Bakshi's career has been marked with controversy: Fritz the Cat (1972), the first animated film to be rated "X" by the MPAA, provoked outrage for its racial caricatures and graphic depictions of sex, and Coonskin (1975) was decried as racist. Heavenly Creatures (1994) acquired its own cult following, became a part of New Zealand's national identity, and paved the way for big-budget, Hollywood-style epics, such as Jackson's The Lord of the Rings trilogy. [15] On their original release, some highly regarded classics from the Golden Age of Hollywood were panned by critics and audiences, relegated to cult status. [174] Although known for their big-budget blockbusters, Steven Spielberg and George Lucas have criticized the current Hollywood system of gambling everything on the opening weekend of these productions. [23]:219–220, Mathijs and Sexton state that genre is an important part of cult films; cult films will often mix, mock, or exaggerate the tropes associated with traditional genres. [142] Anime, according to academic Brian Ruh, is not a cult genre, but the lack of individual fandoms inside anime fandom itself lends itself to a bleeding over of cult attention and can help spread works internationally. November 2014 October 2015 Easy access to cult films via video on demand and peer-to-peer file sharing has led some critics to pronounce the death of cult films. [139], Animation can provide wide open vistas for stories. Movies. Fans of even the most obscure films can communicate online with each other in vibrant communities. [140][141] Phil Hoad of The Guardian identifies Akira (1988) as introducing violent, adult Japanese animation (known as anime) to the West and paving the way for later works. Ang Lee Beach Movies - Cult Films Depicting Subcultural Activities", "Realising the Cult Blockbuster: The Lord of the Rings Fandom and Residual/Emergent Cult Status in 'The Mainstream, "Chapter 5: From Behind the Masks to Inside: Acting, Authenticity, and the, "Fandom and Subculture: Mainstream Cult Fans? April 2020 [60] Cult films have been falsely claimed to have been banned to increase their transgressive reputation and explain their lack of mainstream penetration. Share Share Tweet Email. Casual readers and non-fans will thus be left out of discussions and debates, as they lack enough information to meaningfully contribute. Club. [64] Lloyd Kaufman sees his films' political statements as more populist and authentic than the hypocrisy of mainstream films and celebrities. Smith states that the early films of John Waters are amateurish and less influential than claimed, but Waters' outrageous vision cements his place in cult cinema. Coming Attractions Markets that did not support the sale of these materials saw less cult activity. [15] Film critic Joe Bob Briggs began reviewing drive-in theater and cult films, though he faced much criticism as an early advocate of exploitation and cult films. Hunter describes cult films as "New Hollywood in extremis" and a form of nostalgia for that period. [17] This contradiction exists in many subcultures, especially those dependent on defining themselves in terms of opposition to the mainstream. Drive Both subject matter and its depiction are portrayed in extreme ways that break taboos of good taste and aesthetic norms. By Rose Moore May 25, 2016. All known copies of the film were destroyed, and Nosferatu become an early cult film, kept alive by a cult following that circulated illegal bootlegs. [21] Academic Chuck Kleinhans identifies the Marx Brothers as making other early cult films. [46] Actors can become typecast as they become strongly associated with such iconic roles. [87]:445 Star Wars, with its large cult following in geek subculture, has been cited as both a cult blockbuster[100] and a cult film. Someone like George Romero, whose films are both transgressive and subversive, will have the transgressive aspects highlighted while the subversive aspects are ignored. [169] Tarantino's clout led Phil Hoad of The Guardian to call Tarantino the world's most influential director. February 2015 Nick Cave The Bad Seeds84d349b97c The meaning of life is to give life a meaning, after all. [24] The term cult film itself was an outgrowth of this movement and was first used in the 1970s,[25] though cult had been in use for decades in film analysis with both positive and negative connotations. Audition They maintain a sense of exclusivity by offending mainstream audiences with misogyny, gore, and racism. When films target subcultures like this, they may seem unintelligible without the proper cultural capital. (2015). December 2015 Their rise as "instant cult classics" bypasses the years of obscurity that most cult films labor under. Films that fail to attract requisite amounts of controversy may face resistance when labeled as cult films. Organized fandoms may spread and become popular as a way of introducing new people to the film, as well as theatrical screenings being privileged by the media and fandom itself. ", "The Internet and the Cult Film: On A Fan's Notes", "Waxing Lyrical: David Lynch on His New Passion - and Why He May Never Make Another Movie", "Cult Classics Take on the Blockbusters as Audiences Switch on to Internet Downloads", "Collecting the Trash: The Cult of the Ephemeral Clip from VHS to YouTube", "Schlockey Films Gain Instant Cult Status via Net", "Spoiler Alert: 'John Dies,' But The Rest? February 2016 [97] Mainstream critics may ridicule commercially successful directors of cult blockbusters, such as James Cameron, Michael Bay, and Luc Besson, whose films have been called simplistic. Tobias criticizes Coscarelli as trying too hard to appeal to cult audiences and sacrificing internal consistency for calculated quirkiness. Thus, even comparatively mainstream films can satisfy the traditional demands of a cult film, perceived by fans as transgressive, niche, and uncommercial. March 2014 [51] Qualities that bring cult films to prominence – such as an uncompromising, unorthodox vision – caused Alejandro Jodorowsky to languish in obscurity for years. But it became a surprise cult hit in New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles, where audiences responded ecstatically to the film’s kitschy musical numbers, its winking tributes to B-movies … ", "The A.I.P. Although these are big budget, mainstream films, they still attract cult followings. Cult films and directors may be celebrated for their transgressive content, daring, and independence, but Tompkins argues that mainstream recognition requires they be palatable to corporate interests who stand to gain much from the mainstreaming of cult film culture. These films acquired a legendary reputation as they were discussed and debated in alternative weeklies, such as The Village Voice. The Chinese translation of 'cult' is '邪教', The Chinese translation of 'classic' is '經典. Cultural topics make the film relevant and can lead to controversy, such as a moral panic, which provides opposition. December 2014 Geoffrey Macnab of The Independent instead suggests that Hollywood look to capitalize on cult films, which have exploded in popularity on the internet. Overbroad usage of the term has resulted in controversy, as purists state it has become a meaningless descriptor applied to any film that is the slightest bit weird or unconventional; others accuse Hollywood studios of trying to artificially create cult films or use the term as a marketing tactic. [177] Found footage which had originally been distributed as cult VHS collections eventually went viral on YouTube, which opened them to new generations of fans. December 2019 Fans will often watch films obsessively, an activity that is viewed by the mainstream as wasting time yet can be seen as resisting the commodification of leisure time. [89] Especially when promoted by enthusiastic and knowledgeable programmers, choice of venue can be an important part of expressing individuality. Lena Dunham Cult films are films that have been enjoying immense popularity since their release. Cult audiences tend to gravitate toward the strange and different. [15] Cult film fans consider themselves collectors, rather than consumers, as they associate consumers with mainstream, Hollywood audiences. [22] During this time, American exploitation films and imported European art films were marketed similarly. [171] Their popularity would bring some critics to proclaim the death of cult films now that they have finally become successful and mainstream,[168] are too slick to attract a proper cult following,[28] lack context,[153] or are too easily found online. Of all the genres that are commonly observed in film, there is perhaps none as subjective and intangible as the “cult classic.” Whereas most film genres contain predictable traits and conventions that are revealed through specific iconographic cues, the cult film typically has no such indictors. Jackie Robinson Fans who flaunt their knowledge receive negative reactions. In the same way, critics may ridicule fans of cult blockbusters as immature or shallow. Film critic Harry Allan Potamkin traces them back to 1910s France and the reception of Pearl White, William S. Hart, and Charlie Chaplin, which he described as "a dissent from the popular ritual". [5] For example, Norman Wisdom's films, friendly to Marxist interpretation, amassed a cult following in Albania, as they were among the few Western films allowed by the country's Communist rulers. [23]:202–205 Much like later cult films, these early exploitation films encouraged audience participation, influenced by live theater and vaudeville. February 2017 [48] Sylvia Kristel, after starring in Emmanuelle (1974), found herself highly associated with the film and the sexual liberation of the 1970s. A movie that has a significant following. [40]:157–160 Filmmakers and films ignored in their own country can become the objects of cult adoration in another, producing perplexed reactions in their native country. 15 cult classic movies from the Criterion Collection including "Eraserhead," "Cronos," "Corridors of Blood," "Atomic Submarine," and "Fiend Without a Face." October 2017 Women In Film Score January 2017 [132] Science fiction, fantasy, and horror are known for their large and dedicated cult followings; as science fiction films become more popular, fans emphasize non-mainstream and less commercial aspects of it. Taylor further states that this was instrumental in allowing cult films to break through to the mainstream. [4] Home video and television broadcasts of cult films were initially greeted with hostility. [29] For example, The Beastmaster (1982), despite its failure at the box office, became one of the most played movies on American cable television[30][31] and developed into a cult film. October 2014 [122] Cult films may also subvert nostalgia, such as The Big Lebowski, which introduces many nostalgic elements and then reveals them as fake and hollow. Top 100 Best Cult Classic Movies List. Child Actors [90] For their avoidance of mainstream culture and audiences, enjoyment of irony, and celebration of obscure subcultures, academic Martin Roberts compares cult film fans to hipsters. September 2016 [60] By referencing cult films, media can identify desired demographics, strengthen bonds with specific subcultures, and stand out among those who understand the intertextuality. While critics may champion revolutionary aspects of filmmaking and political interpretation, Hollywood studios and other corporate interests will instead highlight only the aspects that they wish to legitimize in their own films, such as sensational exploitation. Frequently cult films are films depicting controversial or distasteful persons, activities, or philosophies. Cult films are defined as much by audience reaction as they are by content. [173] Despite this, the Alamo Drafthouse has capitalized on cult films and the surrounding culture through inspiration drawn from Rocky Horror and retro promotional gimmickry. During the 1970s and early 1980s, a wave of explicit, graphic exploitation films caused controversy. [85] Popular films from previous eras may be reclaimed by genre fans long after they have been forgotten by the original audiences. [23]:202–203 Mathijs and Sexton state that although cult films are not synonymous with exploitation, as is occasionally assumed, this is a key component; they write that exploitation, which exists on the fringes of the mainstream and deals with taboo subjects, is well-suited for cult followings. Marc Webb November 2015 Joanne Hollows states that they were seen as turning cult films mainstream – in effect, feminizing them by opening them to distracted, passive audiences. This film holds some of the most quoted lines in movie history. Previous articles and controversies can also be alluded to without explanation. December 2017 April 2017 [91], A film can become the object of a cult following within a particular region or culture if it has unusual significance. May 2016 [167] Beginning in the 1990s, director Quentin Tarantino would have the greatest success in turning cult films mainstream. [15] As these cult films become more popular, they can bring varied responses from fans that depend on different interpretations, such as camp, irony, genuine affection, or combinations thereof. Eventually, his work would be reassessed and cult followings, which include Quentin Tarantino and Robert Rodriguez, developed around several of his films. October 2012 [10] Remarking on the popular trend of remaking cult films, Claude Brodesser-Akner of New York magazine states that Hollywood studios have been superstitiously hoping to recreate past successes rather than trading on nostalgia. The Night of the Hunter (1955) was a cult film for years, quoted often and championed by fans, before it was reassessed as an important and influential classic. 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